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17/06/22 Artificial neural networks model face processing in autism | MIT News | Massachusetts Institute of Technology [news.mit]
11/06/22 Jouer de la batterie, le remede contre l'autisme ! [pourquoidocteur]
03/06/22 Genetic correlates of phenotypic heterogeneity in autism | Nature Genetics [nature]
26/05/22 Changes in brain's visual areas in infancy may precede autism diagnosis | National Institutes of Health (NIH) [nih]
18/05/22 Fever doesn't ease challenging traits in most autistic children | Spectrum | Autism Research News [spectrumnews]
13/05/22 Rente familiale et soupcons de maltraitances : « Grand Lieu », le centre d'accueil pour handicapes qui interesse la justice [lemonde]
06/05/22 Inflammation may reshape brain regions tied to autism [spectrumnews]
27/04/22 Décret no 2022-688 du 25 avril 2022 portant modification du conseil de la vie sociale et autres formes de participation [legifrance.gouv]
27/04/22 Compensation du handicap : un decret touche le fonds - Faire Face - Toute l'actualite du handicap [faire-face]
08/04/22 STALICLA acheve avec succes les essais de Phase 1b du premier medicament de precision pour les troubles du spectre de l'autisme [lelezard]
01/04/22 'We're more alike than we might think': New study suggests autistic and non-autistic people share more in common -- ScienceDaily [sciencedaily]
31/03/22 Des cabinets de conseils en situations de handicaps ? [blogs.mediapart]
26/03/22 Five-year NHS autism research strategy for England [england.nhs]

Artificial neural networks model face processing in autism | MIT News | Massachusetts Institute of Technology 17/06/2022

«Many of us easily recognize emotions expressed in others' faces. A smile may mean happiness, while a frown may indicate anger. Autistic people often have a more difficult time with this task. It's unclear why. But new research, published June 15 in The Journal of Neuroscience, sheds light on the inner workings of the brain to suggest an answer. And it does so using a tool that opens new pathways to modeling the computation in our heads: artificial intelligence.Researchers have primarily suggested two brain areas where the differences might lie. A region on the side of the primate (including human) brain called the inferior temporal (IT) cortex contributes to facial recognition. Meanwhile, a deeper region called the amygdala receives input from the IT cortex and other sources and helps process emotions.Kohitij Kar, a research scientist in the lab of MIT Professor James DiCarlo, hoped to zero in on the answer. (DiCarlo, the Peter de Florez Professor in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, is a member of the McGovern Institute for Brain Research and director of MIT's Quest for Intelligence.) Finally, Kar trained separate neural networks to match the judgments of neurotypical controls and autistic adults. He looked at the strengths or “weights” of the connections between the final layers and the decision nodes. The weights in the network matching autistic adults, both the positive or “excitatory” and negative or “inhibitory” weights, were weaker than in the network matching neurotypical controls. This suggests that sensory neural connections in autistic adults might be noisy or inefficient.»
[...]
«Noisy networks Finally, Kar trained separate neural networks to match the judgments of neurotypical controls and autistic adults. He looked at the strengths or “weights” of the connections between the final layers and the decision nodes. The weights in the network matching autistic adults, both the positive or “excitatory” and negative or “inhibitory” weights, were weaker than in the network matching neurotypical controls. This suggests that sensory neural connections in autistic adults might be noisy or inefficient. To further test the noise hypothesis, which is popular in the field, Kar added various levels of fluctuation to the activity of the final layer in the network modeling autistic adults. Within a certain range, added noise greatly increased the similarity between its performance and that of the autistic adults. Adding noise to the control network did much less to improve its similarity to the control participants. This further suggest that sensory perception in autistic people may be the result of a so-called “noisy” brain. »...

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news.mit

Artificial neural networks model face processing in autism | MIT News | Massachusetts Institute of Technology 17/06/2022

«Many of us easily recognize emotions expressed in others' faces. A smile may mean happiness, while a frown may indicate anger. Autistic people often have a more difficult time with this task. It's unclear why. But new research, published June 15 in The Journal of Neuroscience, sheds light on the inner workings of the brain to suggest an answer. And it does so using a tool that opens new pathways to modeling the computation in our heads: artificial intelligence.Researchers have primarily suggested two brain areas where the differences might lie. A region on the side of the primate (including human) brain called the inferior temporal (IT) cortex contributes to facial recognition. Meanwhile, a deeper region called the amygdala receives input from the IT cortex and other sources and helps process emotions.Kohitij Kar, a research scientist in the lab of MIT Professor James DiCarlo, hoped to zero in on the answer. (DiCarlo, the Peter de Florez Professor in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, is a member of the McGovern Institute for Brain Research and director of MIT's Quest for Intelligence.) Finally, Kar trained separate neural networks to match the judgments of neurotypical controls and autistic adults. He looked at the strengths or “weights” of the connections between the final layers and the decision nodes. The weights in the network matching autistic adults, both the positive or “excitatory” and negative or “inhibitory” weights, were weaker than in the network matching neurotypical controls. This suggests that sensory neural connections in autistic adults might be noisy or inefficient.»
[...]
«Noisy networks Finally, Kar trained separate neural networks to match the judgments of neurotypical controls and autistic adults. He looked at the strengths or “weights” of the connections between the final layers and the decision nodes. The weights in the network matching autistic adults, both the positive or “excitatory” and negative or “inhibitory” weights, were weaker than in the network matching neurotypical controls. This suggests that sensory neural connections in autistic adults might be noisy or inefficient. To further test the noise hypothesis, which is popular in the field, Kar added various levels of fluctuation to the activity of the final layer in the network modeling autistic adults. Within a certain range, added noise greatly increased the similarity between its performance and that of the autistic adults. Adding noise to the control network did much less to improve its similarity to the control participants. This further suggest that sensory perception in autistic people may be the result of a so-called “noisy” brain. »...

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news.mit

Jouer de la batterie, le remede contre l'autisme ! 11/06/2022

«De précédentes recherches ont démontré le rôle positif que l'apprentissage de la batterie peut jouer dans l'amélioration des résultats comportementaux des enfants et des adolescents présentant des difficultés émotionnelles et comportementales. Cependant, à ce jour, aucune de ces études n'a exploré comment ces changements comportementaux se traduisent au niveau neuronal", ont indiqué des chercheurs du Kings College London (Royaume-Uni). Pour déterminer l'impact de la pratique de la batterie sur le comportement et les fonctions cérébrales de jeunes autistes, les scientifiques ont décidé de réaliser une étude parue dans la revue Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) le 31 mai. Pour mener à bien leurs travaux, les auteurs ont recruté 36 adolescents autistes n'ayant jamais joué de cet instrument auparavant. Ces derniers ont été divisés en deux groupes.»
[...]
«Des changements neuronaux et comportementaux grâce à la pratique d’un instrument à percussion D’après les recherches, l'amélioration des performances à la batterie était associée à une réduction significative de l'hyperactivité et l'inattention chez les adolescents autistes. Selon l’équipe, les résultats de l'IRM ont démontré une connectivité fonctionnelle accrue dans les zones du cerveau responsables du contrôle inhibiteur, du suivi des résultats de l'action et de l'autorégulation. Les analyses ont révélé une connectivité fonctionnelle accrue dans le gyrus frontal inférieur droit et le cortex préfrontal dorsolatéral droit. "Il est maintenant clair que les activités, comme la pratique de la batterie, sont particulièrement pertinentes dans le contexte des troubles du spectre autistique", a déclaré Marie-Stephanie Cahart, auteure de l’étude, dans un communiqué. La chercheuse a souligné que la percussion met l'accent sur la synchronisation, la coordination œil-main et la nécessité de surveiller et de corriger continuellement les erreurs, ce qui renforce les capacités d'attention, d'inhibition et de réflexion qui sont essentielles aux "résultats sociaux et au bien-être physique et mental". "Les activités de percussion sont également agréables et accessibles à tous, quels que soient l'origine ethnique, l'âge et les antécédents musicaux. Plus important encore, elles offrent un moyen non verbal de s'exprimer, ce qui les rend particulièrement adaptées au contexte des troubles du spectre autistique", a-t-elle ajouté. »...

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pourquoidocteur

Genetic correlates of phenotypic heterogeneity in autism | Nature Genetics 03/06/2022

«Abstract The substantial phenotypic heterogeneity in autism limits our understanding of its genetic etiology. To address this gap, here we investigated genetic differences between autistic individuals (nmax=12,893) based on core and associated features of autism, co-occurring developmental disabilities and sex. We conducted a comprehensive factor analysis of core autism features in autistic individuals and identified six factors. Common genetic variants were associated with the core factors, but de novo variants were not. We found that higher autism polygenic scores (PGS) were associated with lower likelihood of co-occurring developmental disabilities in autistic individuals. Furthermore, in autistic individuals without co-occurring intellectual disability (ID), autism PGS are overinherited by autistic females compared to males. Finally, we observed higher SNP heritability for autistic males and for autistic individuals without ID. Deeper phenotypic characterization will be critical in determining how the complex underlying genetics shape cognition, behavior and co-occurring conditions in autism.»...

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nature

Changes in brain's visual areas in infancy may precede autism diagnosis | National Institutes of Health (NIH) 26/05/2022

«Infants who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at 24 months old had differences in the visual processing areas of the brain that were apparent at 6 months old, according to a study funded by the National Institutes of Health. The researchers theorized that disruption in visual processing could interfere with how infants see the world around them, changing how they interact with and learn from caregivers and their environment. These early changes could affect further brain development and play a role in ASD symptoms. The study was conducted by Jessica Girault, Ph.D., of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, and colleagues. It appears in the American Journal of Psychiatry.»...

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nih

Fever doesn't ease challenging traits in most autistic children | Spectrum | Autism Research News 18/05/2022

«Most autistic children, like their non-autistic peers, become less social, less communicative and more irritable when they have a fever, according to a new unpublished study. Researchers presented the findings 12 May at the 2022 International Society for Autism Research annual meeting. (Links to abstracts may work only for registered conference attendees.) Although sick children are often tired and grumpy, anecdotal reports have suggested that fever eases behavioral difficulties in some autistic children. As much as 17 percent of autistic children become calmer and more social when they have a fever, according to one 2017 study. But that study may have been biased toward finding improved behaviors, says Catherine Lord, distinguished professor of psychiatry and education at the University of California, Los Angeles, who led that study as well as the new one. Participating parents knew the researchers were investigating behavioral changes during fever and may have been more inclined to perceive and report effects, she says. In the new study, Lord and her colleagues designed an app to collect data ...” in a less biased fashion ...” from 141 autistic and 103 non-autistic children between the ages of 2 and 7.»...

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spectrumnews

Rente familiale et soupcons de maltraitances : « Grand Lieu », le centre d'accueil pour handicapes qui interesse la justice 13/05/2022

«Des membres de la famille de l'ancien ministre et président de région centriste Hervé Morin, bénéficient depuis vingt ans des loyers élevés versés par ce centre d'accueil pour adultes handicapés fonctionnant sur financements publics. Une enquête préliminaire a été ouverte à la suite du signalement d'une lanceuse d'alerte. Avec ses 1 580 habitants, son église et ses comices agricoles, Epaignes (Eure), entre Pont-Audemer et Lisieux, est un village tranquille, typique de la Normandie rurale. Il est surtout connu pour son ancien maire, l’actuel président de région et ancien ministre centriste Hervé Morin, qui géra cette commune, dans laquelle il est né, durant vingt ans.»
[...]
« Lorsqu’elle est embauchée, en 2019, en tant que responsable financière de l’association du Grand Lieu, Christine Baudry, qui a déjà une longue carrière dans les milieux associatifs, pense trouver les « valeurs humanistes » rappelées dans l’objet social de la structure. A la place, elle va découvrir un organisme au fonctionnement bancal et clanique. Lire aussi « Lanceur d’alerte », décryptage d’un terme en vogue « J’ai été un cheveu sur la soupe », raconte aujourd’hui cette lanceuse d’alerte qui a, depuis, quitté le foyer du Grand Lieu, et a effectué, le 8 mars, avec son avocat Me Jérôme Karsenti, un signalement au parquet des multiples dysfonctionnements observés. Loyers « astronomiques » »...

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lemonde

Inflammation may reshape brain regions tied to autism 06/05/2022

«Inflammation may inflate or thin out brain regions tied to autism and schizophrenia, researchers report in a new study. The findings add nuance to the long-held hypothesis that immune activation elevates the risk for neurodevelopmental conditions. Autism, for example, is associated with prenatal exposure to infection, previous studies show. Taking a different approach, the new work focuses on how a genetic predisposition to inflammation affects brain development in the general population, says John Williams, research fellow at the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom, who conducted the work with lead researcher Rachel Upthegrove, professor of psychiatry and youth mental health at the university.»
[...]
«By pinpointing where inflammation leaves its mark in the brain, the findings serve as a guidepost for future studies of people with neuropsychiatric conditions, he says. “We think that it points to something that’s fairly transdiagnostic.” For their analyses, the team drew on brain imaging and genetic data from 10,828 women and 9,860 men in the general population who participated in the UK Biobank. They explored how 1,436 possible structural changes in the brain track with having single-nucleotide variants previously shown to increase circulating levels of five inflammatory molecules — interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-2, IL-6, C-reactive protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Three variants thought to boost IL-6 were associated with 33 structural changes, most notably increased volume in the middle temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, and decreased cortical thickness in the superior frontal gyrus — all brain areas implicated in autism. Variants associated with other inflammatory molecules did not track with brain changes, the researchers found. The results jibe with those from a 2021 study suggesting that prenatal exposure to a range of inflammatory molecules, including IL-6, corresponds with brain connectivity differences in adulthood in people with major depression or psychosis, as well as in some controls. “There is a precedent for finding brain differences that are perhaps overlapping with what one sees in certain neuropsychiatric disorders,” says Mady Hornig, associate professor of epidemiology at Columbia University, who led the 2021 work but was not involved in the new study. But the researchers need to validate the effects of genetic variants on IL-6 signaling in the brain in future work, she says. Williams and his team used a technique called mendelian randomization that approximates a series of randomized controlled trials by sorting participants into various comparison groups: those with a given inflammation-boosting variant and controls. Because genetic traits are randomly assigned across the population at conception, the method controls for a range of confounds, such as environmental factors, that may influence inflammation. “I think this study took a really creative approach in using this mendelian randomization strategy to try and generate a kind of quasi-causal test in humans” of how shifts in immune function can affect the brain, says Armin Raznahan, chief of the section on developmental neurogenomics at the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health, who was not involved in the study. »...

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spectrumnews

Décret no 2022-688 du 25 avril 2022 portant modification du conseil de la vie sociale et autres formes de participation 27/04/2022

«1 Décret no 2022-688 du 25 avril 2022 portant modification du conseil de la vie sociale et autres formes de participation NOR : SSAA2211949D Publics concernés : gestionnaires d’établissements et services sociaux et médico-sociaux, personnes âgées, personnes en situation de handicap, personnes en difficultés sociales, personnes sous mesures éducatives. Objet : modification de la composition, du fonctionnement et des compétences du conseil de la vie sociale.»...

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legifrance.gouv

Compensation du handicap : un decret touche le fonds - Faire Face - Toute l'actualite du handicap 27/04/2022

«Après l'intervention du fonds départemental de compensation, le reste à charge des personnes handicapées ayant acheté une aide technique ou engagé d'autres dépenses de compensation ne peut, légalement, dépasser 10 % de leurs ressources personnelles. Un décret du 25 avril précise que les revenus à prendre en compte doivent inclure celles du conjoint. Ce sera l'ultime héritage du premier quinquennat Macron pour les personnes en situation de handicap. Le décret précisant les règles de fonctionnement des fonds départementaux de compensation est paru au Journal officiel mardi 26 avril. Cette mesure met fin à dix-sept ans d'attente...¦ mais ne va pas assez loin pour rendre effectif un droit pourtant garanti par la loi de février 2005.»...

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faire-face

STALICLA acheve avec succes les essais de Phase 1b du premier medicament de precision pour les troubles du spectre de l'autisme 08/04/2022

«STALICLA, une société suisse de biotechnologie au stade clinique, à la pointe du développement de médicaments basés sur les sciences omiques pour les patients atteints de troubles du neuro-développement (TND), a annoncé aujourd'hui la finalisation très réussie des essais de Phase 1b pour son principal candidat médicament, le STP1. Ces données cliniques ouvrent la voie à une première application de la plateforme de découverte de la médecine de précision de STALICLA pour les troubles du spectre de l'autisme. L'objectif de cette étude de Phase 1b, en double aveugle, contrôlée par placebo, était d'évaluer l'innocuité, la tolérabilité et la pharmacocinétique d'un traitement oral de deux semaines avec le STP1 dans un sous-groupe de patients atteints de TSA. Outre le fait de présenter de bons profils d'innocuité et de tolérabilité, et un engagement de la cible en fonction de la dose, le traitement avec le STP1 a déclenché des signaux positifs dans les marqueurs cliniques de la fonction neurologique et comportementale, notamment une amélioration de la vitesse de traitement et une cognition cristallisée composite.»...

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lelezard

'We're more alike than we might think': New study suggests autistic and non-autistic people share more in common -- ScienceDaily 01/04/2022

«Findings published in advance of World Autism Day (Saturday 2 April) reveal there are fundamental similarities between autistic and non-autistic people in mental processing. The brain processes information using two systems: System 1 for quicker intuitive judgements, and System 2 for slower rational thinking. These systems are thought to work differently in autistic people, underlying the difficulties they may experience in everyday life and the workplace. Yet, a landmark study from the universities of Bath, Cardiff, Manchester, and King's College London reports that these fundamental psychological systems are not impaired in autistic people as once thought. In the largest study of its kind, which involved over 1000 people, the researchers tested the link between autism and 'quick' intuitive and 'slow' rational thinking.»...

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sciencedaily

Des cabinets de conseils en situations de handicaps ? 31/03/2022

«Des cabinets de conseils en situations de handicaps ? Handicap, les Communautés 360°, les travaux "d'accompagnements" par le cabinet de conseil ont été qualifiés par la Direction Interministérielle de la Transformation Publique (DITP) comme témoignant d'une « compréhension limitée du sujet », d'une « absence de rigueur sur le fond comme sur la forme » et d'une « valeur ajoutée quasi-nulle (...)».»...

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blogs.mediapart

Five-year NHS autism research strategy for England 26/03/2022

«Five-year NHS autism research strategy for England Five-year NHS autism research strategy for England Contents Introduction............................................................................................................... 2 Policy context..................................................................................................... 3 Information systems........................................................................................... 4 Research evidence ............................................................................................ 4 Why a research strategy is needed.................................................................... 5 The aims of this strategy.................................................................................... 5 Evidence-based healthcare ...................................................................................... 7 Evidence-based practice.................................................................................... 7 Evidence-informed practice ............................................................................... 9 Evidence-based health policy .......................................................................... 11 General principles................................................................................................... 14 1. Make a future together................................................................................. 14 2. Embrace complexity..................................................................................... 14 Strategic action to be taken .................................................................................... 15 1. Build an evidence culture in NHS autism services ................................ 15 2. Appropriate funding for autism research in England ............................. 16 3. Answering relevant research questions ................................................ 17 4. Raising the quality of research.............................................................. 17 5. Using evidence in national autism health policy.................................... 18»...

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england.nhs